A light cruiser is a type of small- or medium-sized warship. The term is a shortening of the phrase "light armored cruiser", describing a small ship that carried armor in the same way as an armored cruiser: a protective belt and deck. Prior to this smaller cruisers had been of the protected cruiser model, possessing armored decks only.
HMS MercuryThe first small steam powered cruisers were built for the British Royal Navy with HMS Mercury launched in 1878. Such second and third class protected cruisers evolved, gradually becoming faster, better armed and better protected. Germany took a lead in small cruiser design in the 1890s, building a class of fast cruisers copied by other nations. Such vessels were powered by coal-fired boilers and reciprocating steam engines and relied in part on the arrangement of coal bunkers for their protection. The adoption of oil-fired water-tube boilers and steam turbine engines meant that older small cruisers rapidly became obsolescent. Furthermore, new construction could not rely on the protection of coal bunkers and would therefore have to adopt some form of side armoring. The British Bristol group of Town-class cruisers (1909) were a departure from previous designs; with turbine propulsion, mixed coal and oil firing and a 2 inch protective armoured belt as well as deck. Thus, by definition, they were armoured cruisers, despite displacing only 4,800 tons; the light armored cruiser had arrived. The first true modern light cruisers were the Arethusa class (1911) which had all oil-firing and used lightweight destroyer-type machinery to make 29 knots (54 km/h).
HMS Gloucester, one of the Town class, in 1917By World War I, British light cruisers often had either two 6 inch (152 mm) and perhaps eight 4 inch (100 mm) guns, or a uniform armament of 6 inch (152 mm) guns on a ship of around 5,000 tons, while German cruisers progressed during the war from 4.1 inch (105 mm) to 5.9 inch (150 mm) guns. Cruiser construction in Britain continued uninterrupted until Admiral "Jacky" Fisher's appointment as First Sea Lord in 1904. Due in part to curtail excess expenditures in light of the increasing cost of keeping up with German naval production and in part because he felt the type to be outdated, Fischer authorized few new cruisers and scrapped 70 older ones. Fischer's belief that battlecruisers would take the place of light cruisers to protect commerce shipping soon proved impractical, as their high construction cost precluded their availability in sufficient numbers to do so, and destroyers were too small for scouting duties. The group of 21 Town class cruisers begun in 1910 proved excellent in scouting in all types of weather and could carry enough fuel and ammunition to guard the trade routes. The Arethusa class, launched three years later, was also successful. British designers continued enlarging and refining subsequent cruiser designs throughout the war. SMS HamburgThe Germans built a number of light cruisers in the belief that they were good multi-purpose vessels. They were bigger, slower and less maneuverable than their British counterparts but, though a successive series of classes, improved consistently in seagoing qualities. However, the Germans were very late in adapting 5.9-inch (150 mm) guns for them (not until the Pillau class of 1913); Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz's recalcitrance over the issue overrode the desires of others in the German Navy. They completed the last two of their Bremens in 1906 and 1907 and followed them up with four Königsbergs and two Dresdens between 1905 and 1908. These last two classes, larger and faster than the Bremens, were armed the same (10 4.1-inch (104 mm) guns) and carried less deck armor. Other major powers concentrated on battleship construction and built few cruisers.
USS Raleigh, an Omaha-class cruiser, in 1942. Note casemates at bow.The United States resumed building light cruisers in 1918, largely because the ships it then had in service had become obsolete. The first of these, the 10 Omaha class ships, displaced 7050 tons and were armed with 12 6-inch (152 mm) guns. Eight of these guns were mounted in double-story casemates at the bow and stern, a reflection of the US prewar preference for heavy end-on fire. Fast and maneuverable, they were well-liked as seaboats despite being very wet in rough weather.
The term light cruiser was given a definition by the London Naval Treaty of 1930. Light cruisers were defined as cruisers having guns of 6.1 inch (155 mm) or smaller, with heavy cruisers defined as cruisers having guns of up to 8 inch (203 mm). In both cases, the ships could not be greater than 10,000 tons. USS Brooklyn (CL-40)After 1930, most naval powers concentrated on building light cruisers since they had already built up to the maximum limitations allowed under the Washington treaty. Japan laid down its four Mogami class cruisers between 1931 and 1934. The political climate from 1936 to 1939 gave the renewed building of light cruisers an added urgency. The British built 11 during this period, which culminated in the two Town class ships, armed with 12 6-inch (152 mm) guns. The new ships were larger and better armored than other British treaty cruisers, with a 4.5-inch (114 mm) belt in the Towns and capable of 32.5 knots, but for the most part tried to stay within past treaty limitations. The US also attempted to follow treaty limitations as it completed seven of its nine Brooklyn class cruisers between 1938 and September 1939. These ships were an answer to Japan's Mogamis and were an indication of rising tensions in the Pacific theater. Japan, now considering itself under no restrictions, began rearming its Mogamis with 10 8-inch (203 mm) guns.
USS Atlanta (CL-51)In the World War II era, light cruisers had guns ranging from 5 inch (127 mm), as seen in the US Atlanta-class and British Dido class anti-aircraft cruisers, to 6.1 inch, though the most common size by far was 6 inch. The Atlantas and Didos were borne out of the tactical need for vessels to protect aircraft carriers, battleships and convoys from air attack.
Heavy cruisers usually had a battery of 8 inch (203 mm) guns. In the years leading up to World War II, with the London Naval Treaty making it impossible to build a balanced heavy cruiser design within tonnage limits, this led to the construction of a great number of light cruisers of 10,000 ton with twelve to fifteen 6-inch (152 mm) guns that were otherwise identical to heavy cruisers.
Heavy cruiser construction was phased out in Britain, France and Italy during the mid 1930s. However, the breakout of World War II allowed nations to skirt the London Treaty and exceed the 10,000 ton limit. By the end of the war, the US Navy's ships classed as "large cruisers" had displacements of nearly 30,000 tons (the Alaska-class cruiser), while light cruisers stayed in the region of 10,000 tons (although sometimes reaching 12,000 or 13,000 tons). Most modern guided missile cruisers have a similar displacement (10,000 tons for Ticonderoga, 12,000 for Slava, 28,000 for Kirov).
HMS Belfast as she is today. She carried 12 x 6-inch guns and displaced 11,553 tons - "light" in WWII referred to gun size, not displacementThree light cruisers are still in existence as museum ships, and one is still used in active service by a navy - BAP Almirante Grau of the Peruvian Navy. The three ships preserved as museum ships are: HMS Belfast (1938) in London, HMS Caroline (1914) in Belfast, and USS Little Rock in Buffalo, New York. Similar ships include the protected cruisers Aurora (St Petersburg) and USS Olympia (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), and the bow of the Puglia (Italy).
In the United States Navy, light cruisers have the hull classification symbol CL. Both heavy cruisers and light cruisers were classified under a common CL/CA sequence after 1931, hence there are some missing hull numbers, see List of light cruisers of the United States. After the development of seaborne guided missiles in the 1950s, all remaining cruisers armed solely with guns, regardless of caliber were redesignated as "Gun Cruisers" (hull classification symbol CA), with guided missile cruisers (which generally carry some gun armament) gaining the new hull classification symbol CG. By the 1975 fleet realignment, all gun cruisers were out of the fleet.
- ^ Beeler, John (2001). Birth of the Battleship: British Capital Ship Design 1870-1881. Naval Institute Press. pp. 40. ISBN 1-55750-213-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=BxZ61ZF4Ea8C&pg=PA40&lpg=PA40.
- ^ Conroy's, p. 2.
- ^ Conway's, p. 152-3; Osborne, p. 73-5.
- ^ Conway's, pp. 119-20.
- ^ Osborne, pp. 112-13.
- ^ Osborne, pp. 116-17.
- ^ Osborne, p. 117.
- Osborne, Eric W., Cruisers and Battle Cruisers: An Illustrated History of Their Impact (ABC-CLIO, 2004). ISBN 1-85109-369-9.