Republic of PolandRzeczpospolita Polska
[1] [2]
Flag Coat of arms
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[3] Location of Poland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green) — [Legend]


(and largest city)


52°13′N 21°02′E / 52.217°N 21.033°E / 52.217; 21.033

Official language(s) Polish
Regional language(s) Kashubian
Ethnic groups (2011) 91.56% Polish0.94% Silesian

0.04% Kashubian 0.07% German 0.07% Ukrainian 0.08% Belarusian 7.24% Other[1]

Demonym Pole/Polish
Government Parliamentary republic
- President Bronisław Komorowski
- Prime Minister Donald Tusk
Legislature National Assembly
- Upper house Senate
- Lower house Sejm
- Christianisation[c] April 14, 966
- Kingdom of Poland April 18, 1025
- Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth July 1, 1569
- Partition of Poland October 24, 1795
- Duchy of Warsaw July 22, 1807
- Congress Poland June 9, 1815
- Reconstitution of Poland November 11, 1918
- Invasion of Poland, World War II September 1, 1939
- Communist Poland April 8, 1945
- Republic of Poland September 13, 1989 –
- Total 312,685 km2 [d](69th)
120,696.41 sq mi
- Water (%) 3.07
- 2010 estimate 38,186,860[2] (34th)
- 2011 census 38,501,000
- Density 120/km2 (83rd)
319.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
- Total $771.658 billion[3]
- Per capita $20,334[3]
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
- Total $513.821 billion[3]
- Per capita $13,540[3]
Gini (2002) 34.5
HDI (2011) 0.813[4] (very high) (39th)
Currency Złoty (PLN)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
- Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code PL
Internet TLD .pl
Calling code 48
1 ^a See, however, Unofficial mottos of Poland.
2 ^b Although not official languages, Belarusian, Kashubian, Lithuanian and German are used in 20 communal offices.
3 ^c The adoption of Christianity in Poland is seen by many Poles, regardless of their religious affiliation or lack thereof, as one of the most significant national historical events; the new religion was used to unify the tribes in the region.
4 ^d The area of Poland according to the administrative division, as given by the Central Statistical Office, is 312,679 km2 (120,726 sq mi) of which 311,888 km2 (120,421 sq mi) is land area and 791 km2 (305 sq mi) is internal water surface area.[5]
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Poland [4]i/ˈplənd/ (Polish: Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska; Kashubian: Pòlskô Repùblika), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north. The total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi),[5] making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. Poland has a population of over 38.5 million people,[5] which makes it the 34th most populous country in the world[6] and the sixth most populous member of the European Union, being its most populous post-communist member. Poland is a unitary state made up of 16 voivodeships. Poland is a member of the European Union, NATO, the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Economic Area, International Energy Agency, Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, International Atomic Energy Agency, European Space Agency, G6, Council of the Baltic Sea States, Visegrád Group, Weimar Triangle and Schengen Agreement.

The establishment of a Polish state is often identified with the adoption of Christianity by its ruler Mieszko I in 966,[7] over the territory similar to that of present-day Poland. The Kingdom of Poland was formed in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a long association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin, forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth ceased to exist in 1795 as the Polish lands were partitioned among the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire, and Old Austria. Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic in 1918. Two decades later, in September 1939, World War II started with the Nazi Germany and Soviet Union invasion of Poland (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact). Over six million Polish citizens died in the war. The People's Republic was declared in 1952 although Poland was a client state of the Soviet Union from the closing days of the war. During the Revolutions of 1989, the communist state was overthrown and democratic rule was re-established in the form of the current Poland, constitutionally known as the "Third Polish Republic".

Despite the vast destruction the country experienced in World War II, Poland managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth. There are currently 14 heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list in Poland.[8] Since the end of the communist period, Poland has achieved a "very high" ranking in terms of human development.[9]

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